7 STD palette (Chlamydia trachomatis, ureaplasma urealyticum, ureaplasma parvum, mycoplasma hominis, mycoplasma genitalium, neisseria gonorrhoeae, trichomonos vaginalis) (PCR)
Chlamydia trachomatis (PCR)
Genitourinary tract (urinary and genital) C. trachomatis infection (syn. chlamydia) is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI), which is often asymptomatic, leading to delayed diagnosis and continuous transmission of the bacterium to sexual partners. If not diagnosed in time and spread between sexual partners, it causes reproductive health disorders (infertility).
Urogenital chlamydia is transmitted during all types of sexual intercourse (vaginal, oral, anal; heterosexual or homosexual). Chlamydia infection is not transmitted by household means, especially by observing personal hygiene. An infected mother can transmit the infection to her baby during childbirth.
In women, the most common symptoms are: mucous or purulent vaginal discharge, painful urination, burning sensation when urinating, difficulty urinating, bleeding after intercourse, pain in the lower abdomen or during intercourse, bleeding between periods, heavy periods. Chlamydia infection from the cervix can penetrate deeper into the urinary and genital organs and cause pelvic inflammatory disease. According to the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control, 9 percent women who are not treated for chlamydial infection for 12 months develop pelvic inflammatory disease.
In men, chlamydia can manifest as white or clear discharge from the urethra (urethra), a burning sensation when urinating. Men sometimes find it difficult to urinate, they feel itching around the urethra. Chlamydia can enter a man's internal urinary and genital organs and cause inflammation of the testicles, epididymis, manifested by scrotal pain and swelling. Possible signs of inflammation of the exit opening (pain, discharge, bleeding). When inflammation of the prostate gland (prostate) begins, there are throbbing pains in the areas of the sacrum, perineum, groin, testicles, urethra, urination increases, especially at night, sexual ability weakens, temperature may rise.
Neisseria gonorrheae (PCR)
Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes gonorrhea, which is one of the most important sexually transmitted infections. The disease manifests as acute urethritis in men and cervicitis in women. Gonorrhea in women can often be asymptomatic. Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection is associated with ectopic pregnancy, infertility, adnexitis, inflammation of the abdominal cavity. Using a PCR reaction to identify Neisseria gonorrhoeae DNA compared to a culture significantly reduces the time needed to identify the causative agent. At the same time, the sensitivity and specificity of the test increases. If the sample is to be transported, this test is always preferable to culture. One of the circumstances leading to this choice is that for PCR identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae it is not necessary to have a viable microorganism without contamination from other elements of the microflora.
The symptoms of Mycoplasma hominis infection are similar to many other sexually transmitted diseases, so they can often be confused with the symptoms of gonorrhea or chlamydia. The resulting infection causes pain when urinating in both men and women. There is also discharge from the genital tract, which may have an unusual smell. Women with Mycoplasma hominis infection sometimes experience pain during intercourse. This happens because the ureters begin to press against the walls of the vagina during inflammation. When the vaginal walls are irritated and flooded with blood, the two tissues press against each other and cause pain. Men usually do not feel pain during intercourse.
Mycoplasma genitalium (PCR)
The effect is similar to Chlamydia trachomatis: in women it causes pelvic inflammatory disease, inflammation of the urethra and cervix (urethritis and cervicitis), and in men - inflammation of the prostate and urethra (prostatitis and urethritis), the symptoms of which are more pronounced than those caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. Most often causes a chronic disease. During the acute period, purulent, increased secretions from the genitals appear, itching, burning and stinging of the external genitals occur, sometimes enlarged lymph nodes can be felt in the groin area.
Ureaplasma spp. (PCR)
In women, ureaplasmas are more often found with inflammations of the cervix and pelvic organs. In men, ureaplasmas are more often found in urethra and prostate inflammations, they can worsen the quality of sperm.
Trichomonas vaginalis (PGR)
Can be transmitted through unprotected sex, including kissing. In women, it causes inflammation of the urethra, vagina, cervix, in men - in the urethra, prostate, and testicles.