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A mixed palette of allergens
The test is used for the quantitative measurement of allergen-specific IgE in human serum as an aid to the clinical evaluation of IgE-related disorders. Many allergies are mediated by immunoglobulins of the IgE class. In sensitized individuals, when a sudden form of allergy (atopic or anaphylactic) develops, IgE molecules act as contact points between the allergen and special cells that release histamine and other substances when exposed to the allergen. This causes symptoms that are recognized as allergic reactions. This is evaluated in conjunction with other clinical and laboratory findings. In vitro allergen-specific IgE tests can help identify the allergen or allergens to which an individual is sensitive.
The term "allergy" was first used by Clemens van Pirquet, referring to the increased ability of the body to react to foreign substances. Today, the term allergy refers to an oversensitivity to foreign substances that are usually not harmful but can cause severe reactions in exposed individuals. In addition to genetic predisposition, non-genetic factors such as allergen exposure, nutritional status, existing chronic diseases or acute viral infections play an important role in allergies. Atopy is an inherited tendency to allergic reactions such as allergic asthma, rhinitis or dermatitis (including atopic eczema). The most common type of allergy is a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction in which specific IgE antibodies are produced. Symptoms (eg, redness, edema, itching) usually appear shortly after contact with the allergen. For this reason, this type of allergy is called a rapid type reaction. In developed countries, more than 15% of the population suffers from fast-type allergies. Insect stings are a problem that usually occurs during the summer. A normal reaction to a sting is local pain, swelling, itching and redness. Individuals allergic to insect venom may experience systemic symptoms or even develop anaphylactic shock. Symptoms of a severe allergic reaction include hives, swelling, itching and redness in non-stinged areas, swelling of the pharynx and tongue, difficulty breathing, nausea, spasms of the gastrointestinal tract, diarrhea, neurological deficits manifested by confusion, dizziness and difficulty walking, as well as increased pulse and decreased blood pressure. There is a risk that repeated stings may cause similar or even more severe symptoms in patients with systemic reactions to insect venom. Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is recommended for such individuals. This treatment has been shown to be highly effective in preventing further systemic allergic reactions. VIT increases specific IgG, blocking antibodies that decrease specific IgE. After an insect sting, an allergic reaction can occur immediately within a few minutes or after several hours. The earlier symptoms appear, the more severe the allergic reaction.